Indian President Pratibha Patil presented the medal to Chau at the ceremony.
Three other mathematicians: Elon Lindenstrauss (Israel), Stanislav Smirnov (Russia) and Cedric Villani (France) also won the prize.
The medal, described as the Nobel Prize of Mathematics for the prestige it carries, is presented to the best mathematicians at the International Congress of Mathematicians hosted by the International Mathematical Union every four years.
Chau was acknowledged for his excellent achievements in mathematics, especially after he proved the fundamental lemma proposed by Robert Langlands and Diana Shelstad – a result which was selected by Time Magazine as one of the Top Ten Scientific Discoveries of 2009.
After Japan, Vietnam was the second Asian nation to have won the prestigious medal.
Born in 1972, Chau was an only son to an intellectual family in Hanoi. His father, professor Ngo Huy Can, was a physicist at the Vietnam National Institute of Mechanics. His mother, associate professor Tran Luu Van Hien, worked at the Traditional Medicine Hospital in Hanoi.
The 38-year-old man has won many awards in Vietnam and abroad. He is currently working at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, the US.