Threat from super greenhouse gases
In order to write off the CFC threat, the Montreal Protocol was signed in 1989 as part of efforts to limit and gradually eliminate CFC compounds from use.
Unfortunately, CFC compounds have generated hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), a by-product during the production of HCFC-22 new chemicals to replace CFCs, mainly used in air conditioning and refrigeration. According to data recently released by the US-based International Institute of Sustainable Development, HFCs would contribute the equivalent of 20 percent of CO2 per year to global warming by 2050.
Many of the signatory countries to the Montreal Protocol have proposed amendments to cut HFCs via changing refrigerant technology to remove and prevent HFC-23 from escaping into the environment.
|Vietnam signed the Montreal Protocol in January 1994 and successfully removed 500 tonnes of CFCs, and 3.8 tonnes of halon as of January 2010. However, during the 2009-2010, it still used 3,200 tonnes of HCFC-22, 500 tonnes of HCFC-141b, and 7,000 tonnes of polyol with HCFC-141b.|
Vietnam strives for HCFC elimination
Vietnam is currently drafting a project on the elimination of HCFC from now until 2030, the first phase of the project will be implemented from late 2012 to 2017 with US$10 million provided by the Multilateral Fund for the implementation of the Montreal Protocol.
The goal of the phase is to eliminate 500 tonnes of pure HCFC-141b in 12 eligible businesses involved in the insulation foam technology project through the replacement of the entire cyclopentane using HCFC-141b with technology harmless to the ozone layer; and 800 tonnes of HCFC-141b which is a ready mixed polyol as part of preparation for reducing the production of air conditioners using HCFC-22.
These 12 eligible businesses will receive 80-90 percent discounts on the cost of the technological transfer expenses, worth up to US$9.7 million for the first phase of the project. The second phase will be prepared in 2014 and 2015 and deployed in 2017, with a view to eliminate HCFC by 2030 in accordance with the commitments outlined in the Montreal Protocol.
The second phase of the project will be up for financing by 2015. It is estimated that Vietnam will need from US$20-25 million to fully eliminate HCFCs.
Ministry of Industry and Trade in collaboration with the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment issued the Joint Circular 47 providing regulations for the management of import, export and temporary import for export of ozone depleting substances.
Yearly import quotas will be applied from January 1, 2012 until December 31, 2019 for each HCFC group. For example, the import quota for HCFC-141b in 2012 was 500 tonnes, 300 tonnes in 2013 and 150 tonnes in 2014. For other HCFCs, the import quotas were 3,700 tonnes in 2012, 3,400 tonnes in 2013, 3,700 tonnes in 2014, and during the 2015-2019 period 3,600 tonnes per year. Import quotas for HCFCs after 2019 will be updated based on HCFC elimination results./.
By Nguyen Van Khanh