“I hope we can contribute to better relations between the two countries,” said Jimmy Carter in describing his mission to Cuba at the end of March. During a remarkable three-day trip, the thirty-ninth president of the United States assumed the multifaceted role of intermediary, diplomat, conciliator and highest-profile proponent of a more positive future in Washington’s approach to Havana.
Since he made history by visiting Cuba nine years ago, Carter has remained the only former US president to go to Havana after the 1959 revolution. His second visit was a meticulously organized affair. At the top of his agenda: establish a relationship of confidence with Cuban President Raúl Castro; listen carefully to Cuba’s grievances; convey US interests in advancing human rights and democracy; and press for the release of imprisoned US Agency for International Development (USAID) subcontractor Alan Gross, whose case has become a major impediment to improved ties.
In less than seventy-two hours, Carter managed to meet with almost every key constituency that could provide information, credibility and political cover to advance his effort to change US policy: recently released political prisoners, the head of Cuba’s Catholic Church, Cuba’s leading human rights advocates and dissidents, the staff of the US Interest Section as well as ambassadors whose countries have full relations with Cuba, and leading Cuban economic, political and foreign policy officials. Carter also visited Gross, convicted in March and sentenced to fifteen years for crimes against the Cuban state for surreptitiously distributing satellite communications equipment to religious groups under a USAID “democracy” promotion program. And, in a significant gesture to the Castro government’s effort to obtain freedom for the so-called “Cuban Five”—counterterrorism agents arrested in Florida by the FBI for conspiracy to commit espionage (they were monitoring violent exile groups) and incarcerated for more than twelve years in the United States—Carter met with their mothers and wives during his brief stay in Havana.
Carter described his meeting with retired comandante in chief Fidel Castro as a visit of “old friends.” But his six-hour summit with President Raúl Castro on March 29—which included dinner at one of Havana’s leading restaurants—was the focus of his trip. Raúl gave Carter “an overview of the Cuban revolution”—including the 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion, Cuba’s uneasy relationship with the Soviet Union, Cuba’s involvement in Angola, his relationship with Fidel—and briefed him on the speech the Cuban president plans to make at the Communist Party Congress, scheduled for the fiftieth anniversary of the US invasion and of Fidel’s announcement, on April 16, 1961, that Cuba was a socialist state. The two also discussed “confidential issues,” Carter told the press before he returned to the United States, which he would share privately with President Obama.
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