21st century with the strategy for sustainable development across the globe, especially the period of “green economic development” began to witness new technologies to produce ‘cleaner’ electricity, including electricity from infinite renewable energy sources in nature. With the rich potential of marine renewable energy, the direction towards the effective and sustainable development of marine electrical industry is vital for Vietnam.
The potential of marine energy is rich
The potential of marine electronics in Vietnam is very rich including wind power, solar power, wave power, tidal power. However, the investment and exploitation speed of this energy source is still slower compared to the world. In Decision No. 1208/QD-TTg (Electricity Planning VII) dated 21/7/2011 of the Prime Minister towards 2030, among the power sources from renewable energy according to development planned, just wind energy 6,200 MW is mentioned. Therefore, it is necessary to accurately identify the marine potential source to draw up the appropriate exploitation and development route.
According to ‘The map of wind energy in Southeast Asia’ published in 2001, Vietnam has a huge potential in the expansion of commercial wind power. In recent researches, the potential of land-based wind power on a large scale has an estimated capacity of 120-160 GW, the highest potential of exploitation in coastal East – Southeast.
The coastal areas of our country, especially the South’s area is wide and very shallow depth of 30 m below, so there is potential in developing wind power at sea. According to data of Con Dao’s wind, the average wind speed of this region is over 5m/s. To take advantage of this energy source, since 2011, Ca Mau Cong Ly Corporation is a pioneer in the construction and deployment of wind power plants of coastal Vietnam in Bac Lieu, Soc Trang, Tra Vinh, Can Gio with the density of 100 MW/5 km2, with the distance among the vertical wind turbines of 1.5 MW and 80 meters high, the length of propeller is 42.5 meters. The total sea surface area is estimated at nearly 3000 hectares with a capacity of 600 MW. It is estimated that the total capacity of wind power for the total area of 145,000 km2 is 3,000 GW, it implies that just the development of wind power in the Mekong River Delta have been able to provide nearly 2,000 GW of wind power in coastal area.
Vietnam marine not only has the potential of wind power but also has the potential of solar radiation, which is ranked as high level in the world, with the number of sunshine hours ranged from 1,600-2,600 hours/year, especially in the South. Vietnam currently has more than 100 observation stations nationwide to monitor the solar data. The average of solar radiation nationwide varies from 3.8 to 5.2 kWh/m2/ day. The best potential of solar electricity is from Hue to the South.
Tidal energy has the potential in in the Tonkin Gulf and the estuaries of coastal Southeast. Theoretical calculations showed that, tidal power can reach 4 GW in the coastal Mekong Delta, helping Vietnam develop tidal power.
With such potential, Vietnam can develop marine electrical industry.
How to develop marine electrical industry
Besides the traditional economic sectors, developing marine electronics will bring added value to each km2 of coastal areas, at the same time ensuring energy security for Vietnam. Therefore, Prof. Du Van Toan – Research Institute for the Management of Sea and Islands – Vietnam Administration of Sea and Islands, marine management agencies, the coastal provinces need to implement evaluation research and development plan for sea wind power. The planning of wind power, wave power, etc. will help investors efficiently and sustainably develop a marine electrical industry. In addition, it is necessary to fully assess strategic environment and environmental impacts; otherwise there will be consequences to other economic activities.
Besides, Vietnam should develop and promulgate the Law on Renewable Energy, national programs for wind power, wave power, tidal power, etc… It is vital to enhance research on marine renewable energy, promote international economic cooperation and build policy mechanism for the application of electronic transport technology of renewable energy of Vietnam marine. Only so can Vietnam sharply develop renewable energy at sea, extend the range of application, improve efficiency in use and increase the proportion of renewable energy in energy structure of Vietnam.
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